Research Papers:

COX-2 overexpression increases malignant potential of human glioma cells through Id1

Kaiming Xu, Lanfang Wang, Hui-Kuo G. Shu _

PDF |  HTML  |  Author Information  |  Order a Reprint

Oncotarget. 2014; 5:1241-1252. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.1370

Metrics: PDF 1623 views  |   HTML 1258 views  |   ?  


Kaiming Xu1, Lanfang Wang1 and Hui-Kuo G. Shu1

1 Department of Radiation Oncology and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA


Hui-Kuo G. Shu, email:

Keywords: glioblastoma, glioma, brain tumor, tumorigenesis, cyclooxygenase-2, Id1

Received: September 4, 2013 Accepted: October 29, 2013 Published: October 31, 2013


Increased COX-2 expression directly correlates with glioma grade and is associated with shorter survival in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. COX-2 is also regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor signaling which is important in the pathogenesis of GBMs. However, COX-2 expression has not been previously shown to directly alter malignancy of GBMs. Id1 is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcriptional repressors that act as dominant-negative inhibitors of basic-HLH factors. This factor has been shown to be regulated by COX-2 in breast carcinoma cells and recent studies suggest that Id1 may also be involved in the genesis/progression of gliomas. We now show that COX-2 increases the aggressiveness of GBM cells. GBM cells with COX-2 overexpression show increased growth of colonies in soft agar. Tumorigenesis in vivo is also increased in both subcutaneous flank and orthotopic intracranial tumor models. COX-2 overexpression induces Id1 expression in two GBM cell lines suggesting a role for Id1 in glioma transformation/tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we find direct evidence of a role for Id1 with significant suppression of in vitro transformation and in vivo tumorigenesis in COX-2-overexpressing GBM cells where Id1 has been knocked down. In fact, Id1 is even more efficient at enhancing transformation/tumorigenesis of GBM cells than COX-2. Finally, GBM cells with COX-2 or Id1 overexpression show greater migration/invasive potential and tumors that arise from these cells also display increased microvessel density, results in line with the increased malignant potential seen in these cells. Thus, COX-2 enhances the malignancy of GBM cells through induction of Id1.

Author Information

Kaiming Xu
Emory University and the Winship Cancer Institute

Lanfang Wang
Emory University and the Winship Cancer Institute

Hui-Kuo G. Shu
Primary Contact  _

Emory University and the Winship Cancer Institute

Creative Commons License All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
PII: 1370